Sunday, February 20, 2011

Dr. Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah (HAMKA, 1908-1981)


HAMKA (1908-1981), is a call of a famous figure in Indonesia about the movement in the field of religion at that time who actually named "Haji Abdul Malik bin Abdul Karim Amrullah".

He is a scholar, political activist and author of Indonesia. He was born on February 17, 1908 in the village Molek, Review, West Sumatra, Indonesia. His father was Sheikh Abdul Karim bin Haji Amrullah or recognized as a messenger, a pioneer Islah Movement (tajdid) in Minangkabau, upon his return from Mecca in 1906.


HAMKA got low education in Elementary School Maninjau until Darjah Two. When HAMKA 10 years of age, his father had established Sumatra Thawalib in Padang Panjang, so HAMKA has studied religion and studying Arabic in there.

HAMKA also had followed the teaching of religion in the mosque which is given well-known scholars such as Sheikh Ibrahim Musa, Sheikh Rashid Ahmad, Mansoor Sutan, RM Surjoparonto and Ki Bagus Hadikusumo.

Some professions have ever cultivated during their life are he began as a religious teacher in 1927 at the High Cliff Estates, Medan and Padang Panjang religious teacher in 1929, he also was inaugurated in as “Pensyarah” at the Islamic University, Jakarta and Universitas Muhammadiyah, Padang Panjang from 1957 until 1958. After that, he was appointed as rector of Islamic University, Jakarta, and Professor University Mustapo, Jakarta.

From 1951 to 1960, he was appointed as the High Civil Religion by Indonesian Minister of Religious Affairs, but put the department when Sukarno gave two option become employees of the political kingdom or working on Indonesian Muslim Majlis Shura (Masyumi).

With the high Arabic language proficiency, he may investigate the work of scholars and poets of the Middle East such as Zaki Mubarak, Jurji Zaidan, Abbas al-Aqqad, Mustafa al-Manfaluti and Hussain Haikal, and he has been researching the work of French scholars, such as Great Britain and Germany Albert Camus, William James, Freud, Toynbee, Jean Sartre, Karl Marx and Pierre Loti.

HAMKA also diligently reading and exchange-rate mind with famous figures such as HOS Chokroaminoto Jakarta, Raden Mas Surjoparonoto, Haji Fakrudin, Ar Sutan Mansur and Ki Bagus Hadikusumo while honing his talent to become a reliable speaker.

HAMKA also active in the Islamic movement at Muhammadiyah organisation. He accompanies began in 1925 to oppose superstition, heresy, heretical congregations and psychotherapy in Padang Panjang.

Beginning in 1928, he became the leader of Muhammadiyah organisation in Padang Panjang. Then, In 1929, he had established the training center preachers Muhammadiyah and two years later he became Muhammadiyah consul in Makassar, then, He was elected as the chairman of Majlis Muhammadiyah leaders in West Sumatra by the Conference of the Muhammadiyah, replaces S. Y. Sutan Mangkuto in 1946. He had set back development in the 31st Congress of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta in 1950, and then, in 1953, HAMKA elected as an advisor to the leadership of Muhammadiah Center.

On 26 July 1957, Indonesian Minister of Religious Affairs Mukti Ali inaugurated HAMKA as the leader of the “Majlis Ulama Indonesia”, but he later replaced the department in 1981 because some of their advice disregard by Indonesian goverment.

HAMKA political activities began in 1925 when he became a member of the political Islam Party SI. Then, in 1945, he helped progress against the Dutch colonists returning to Indonesia through the speech and accompanying activities war in the forest in Medan.

In 1947, HAMKA inaugurated in as chairman of the Barisan Pertahanan National, Indonesia.

Next, He became a member of the Constituent Masyumi and the main pemidato Options General Raya 1955, then Masyumi organisation was banned by the Indonesian government in 1960.

From 1964 until1966, HAMKA has been imprisoned by Sukarno President because he accused of Malaysia.

During he imprisoned by the government, he originally wrote Tafsir al-Azhar which is the largest scientific work.

Once out of prison, HAMKA inaugurated in as the expert of the National Consultative Body Virtue, Indonesia, Indonesian Hajj Travel Majlis members and members of the National Culture Institute, Indonesia.

Besides active in religious and political problem, HAMKA is a journalist, writer, editor and publisher. Since the 1920's, HAMKA became a journalist in newspaper such as Pelita Andalas, Seruan Islam, Bintang Islam and Seruan Muhammadiyah.

In 1928, he became editor of Kemajuan Masyarakat magazine, and he also became editor and published the magazine al-Mahdi in Makasar (1932), Gema Panji Islam, Pedoman Masyarakat, Panji Masyarakat and Gema Islam. He also produced workspaper of Islamic scientific and creative works such as novels and short stories. Greatest scientific work is Tafsir al-Azhar (5 volumes) and among the novels that got public attention and he became a literary textbook in Malaysia and Singapore, such us Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijck, Di Bawah Lindungan Ka'bah and Merantau at Deli.

HAMKA had received several appresiation in the national and international like Doctor Honoris Causa in Al-Azhar University, and at 1958, Doctor Honoris Causa from Kebangsaan Malaysia University, 1974; and he also got the title Datuk Indono and Pengeran Wiroguno from the Empire of Indonesia.

HAMKA died on July 24, 1981, but the dedication and the influence of creation is still felt that now in status muslim dedication, including Malaysia and Singapore, also appreciated him.

Lists of Work Buya Hamka:
  • Khatibul Ummah, Jilid 1-3. Ditulis dalam huruf Arab.
  • Si Sabariah. (1928)
  • Pembela Islam (Tarikh Saidina Abu Bakar Shiddiq),1929.
  • Adat Minangkabau dan agama Islam (1929).
  • Ringkasan tarikh Ummat Islam (1929).
  • Kepentingan melakukan tabligh (1929).
  • Hikmat Isra' dan Mikraj.
  • Arkanul Islam (1932) di Makassar.
  • Laila Majnun (1932) Balai Pustaka.
  • Majallah 'Tentera' (4 nomor) 1932, di Makassar.
  • Majallah Al-Mahdi (9 nomor) 1932 di Makassar.
  • Mati mengandung malu (Salinan Al-Manfaluthi) 1934.
  • Di Bawah Lindungan Ka'bah (1936) Pedoman Masyarakat,Balai Pustaka.
  • Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijck (1937), Pedoman Masyarakat, Balai Pustaka.
  • Di Dalam Lembah Kehidupan 1939, Pedoman Masyarakat, Balai Pustaka.
  • Merantau ke Deli (1940), Pedoman Masyarakat, Toko Buku Syarkawi.
  • Margaretta Gauthier (Terjemahan) 1940.
  • Tuan Direktur 1939.
  • Dijemput mamaknya,1939.
  • Keadilan Ilahi 1939.
  • Tashawwuf Modern 1939.
  • Falsafah Hidup 1939.
  • Lembaga Hidup 1940.
  • Lembaga Budi 1940.
  • Majallah 'SEMANGAT ISLAM' (Zaman Jepun 1943).
  • Majallah 'MENARA' (Terbit di Padang Panjang), sesudah revolusi 1946.
  • Negara Islam (1946).
  • Islam dan Demokrasi,1946.
  • Revolusi Pikiran,1946.
  • Revolusi Agama,1946.
  • Adat Minangkabau menghadapi Revolusi,1946.
  • Dibantingkan ombak masyarakat,1946.
  • Didalam Lembah cita-cita,1946.
  • Sesudah naskah Renville,1947.
  • Pidato Pembelaan Peristiwa Tiga Maret,1947.
  • Menunggu Beduk berbunyi,1949 di Bukittinggi,Sedang Konperansi Meja Bundar.
  • Ayahku,1950 di Jakarta.
  • Mandi Cahaya di Tanah Suci. 1950.
  • Mengembara Dilembah Nyl. 1950.
  • Ditepi Sungai Dajlah. 1950.
  • Kenangan-kenangan hidup 1,autobiografi sejak lahir 1908 sampai pd tahun 1950.
  • Kenangan-kenangan hidup 2.
  • Kenangan-kenangan hidup 3.
  • Kenangan-kenangan hidup 4.
  • Sejarah Ummat Islam Jilid 1,ditulis tahun 1938 diangsur sampai 1950.
  • Sejarah Ummat Islam Jilid 2.
  • Sejarah Ummat Islam Jilid 3.
  • Sejarah Ummat Islam Jilid 4.
  • Pedoman Mubaligh Islam,Cetakan 1 1937 ; Cetakan ke 2 tahun 1950.
  • Pribadi,1950.
  • Agama dan perempuan,1939.
  • Muhammadiyah melalui 3 zaman,1946,di Padang Panjang.
  • 1001 Soal Hidup (Kumpulan karangan dr Pedoman Masyarakat,dibukukan 1950).
  • Pelajaran Agama Islam,1956.
  • Perkembangan Tashawwuf dr abad ke abad,1952.
  • Empat bulan di Amerika,1953 Jilid 1.
  • Empat bulan di Amerika Jilid 2.
  • Pengaruh ajaran Muhammad Abduh di Indonesia (Pidato di Cairo 1958), utk Doktor Honoris Causa.
  • Soal jawab 1960,disalin dr karangan-karangan Majalah GEMA ISLAM.
  • Dari Perbendaharaan Lama 1963,dicetak oleh M.Arbie Medan.
  • Lembaga Hikmat,1953 oleh Bulan Bintang,Jakarta.
  • Islam dan Kebatinan,1972;Bulan Bintang.
  • Fakta dan Khayal Tuanku Rao,1970.
  • Sayid Jamaluddin Al-Afhany 1965,Bulan Bintang.
  • Ekspansi Ideologi (Alghazwul Fikri),1963 ,Bulan Bintang.
  • Hak Asasi Manusia dipandang dari segi Islam 1968.
  • Falsafah Ideologi Islam 1950(sekembali dr Mekkah).
  • Keadilan Sosial dalam Islam 1950 (sekembali dr Mekkah).
  • Cita-cita kenegaraan dalam ajaran Islam (Kuliah umum) di Universiti Keristan 1970.
  • Studi Islam 1973,diterbitkan oleh Panji Masyarakat.
  • Himpunan Khutbah-khutbah.
  • Urat Tunggang Pancasila.
  • Doa-doa Rasulullah S.A.W,1974.
  • Sejarah Islam di Sumatera.
  • Bohong di Dunia.
  • Muhammadiyah di Minangkabau 1975, (Menyambut Kongres Muhammadiyah di Padang).
  • Pandangan Hidup Muslim,1960.
  • Kedudukan perempuan dalam Islam,1973.
  • Tafsir Al-Azhar Juz 01-30, ditulis pada masa beliau dipenjara oleh Sukarno


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